Man: Current studies that what goes on labels is an important consideration for manufacturers, since more than seventy percent of shopper read food labels when considering whether to buy a product.
A recent controversy as to whether labels on prepared foods should educate or merely inform the consumer is over, and a consumer group got its way. The group had maintained that product labels should do more than simply list how many grams of nutrients a food contains. Their contention was that labels should also list the percentage of a day’s total nutrients that the product will supply to the consumer, because this information is essential in planning a healthy diet.
A government agency disagree strongly, favoring a label that merely inform the consumer, in other words, a label that only lists the contents of the product. The agency maintained that consumers could decide for themselves if the food is nutritious and is meeting their daily needs.
The consumer group, in supporting its case, had cited a survey in which shoppers were shown a food label, and were then asked if they would need more or less of a certain nutrient after eating a serving of this product. The shoppers weren’t able to answer the question easily when they were not given a specific percentage.
This study, and any other helped get the new regulation passed, and now food product must have the more detailed labels.
39. What was the controversy about?
40. Why does the speaker mention that more than seventy percent of people read food labels?
41. What did the consumer group propose?
42. What did the survey of food shoppers reveal?
Woman: Good afternoon. I’m here today to talk to you about a career with our airline. We’re especially interested in recruiting people to fill openings for flight attendants.
First of all, to work as a flight attendant with us, you must be accepted into our training program and with so many people applying, it’s not easy to be selected. From the thousands of applications that we received annually, we choose fewer than a thousand people for training. So, we require experience serving the public and it also helps if you’ve earned some college credits.
Also, not everybody who gets accepted into the training program makes it through. The course meets six days a week for five weeks. The training includes extensive classroom work in such subjects as first aid and passenger psychology as well as practical training in flight procedures and meal service. A lot of your graduates say that our flight attendants develop skills of a nurse, a headwaiter, and a public relations executive!
But as a flight attendant myself, I can say that all of the hard work is worth it. Of course, I get to travel throughout the country, and the airline pays all of my expenses while I’m away from my base station and what I like best of all is that I’ve made friends with people from all over the country!
43. What is the purpose of the talk?
44. According to the speaker, what are applicants to the training program required to have?
45. What subject matter does the speaker mention is included in the training?
46. Why does the speaker mention headwaiters?
47. What does the speaker like most about her job?
Woman: Today I want to talk about the Earth’s last major climatic shift, at the end of the last ice ages.
But first, let’s back up a moment and review what we know about climatic change in general. First, we defined “climate” as consistent pattern of weather over significant period of time.
In general changes in climate occur when the energy balance of the earth is disturbed. Solar energy enters the Earth’s atmosphere as light and is radiated by the Earth’s surface as heat. Land, water, and ice each affect this energy exchange differently. The system is so complex that, to date, our best computer models are only crude approximation and are not sophisticated enough to test hypotheses about the causes of climatic change.
Of course that doesn’t keep us from speculating. For instance, volcanic activity is one mechanism that might affect climatic change.
When large volcanoes erupt, they disperse tons of particles into the upper atmosphere, where the particles then reflect light. Since less light is entering the system of energy exchange, the result would be a cooling of the Earth’s surface.
Of course, this is just one possible mechanism of global climate change. In all probability, a complete explanation would involve several different mechanism operating at the same time.
48. How does the speaker begin her discussion?
49. What does teh speaker mean by the phrase “the energy balance of the Earth”?
50. Why do meteorologists have difficulty testing hypothesis about climatic changes?